In hydroelectric power plants the
potential energy of water due to its high location is converted into electrical
energy. The total power generation capacity of the hydroelectric power plants
depends on the head of water and volume of water flowing towards the water
Power Plants :-
hydroelectric power plant, also called as dam or hydro power plant, is used for
generation of electricity from water on large scale basis. The dam is
built across the large river that has sufficient quantity of water throughout
the river. In certain cases where the river is very large, more than one dam
can built across the river at different locations.
Principle of Hydroelectric Power plant
water flowing in the river possesses two type of energy:
kinetic energy due to flow of water and
due to the height of water.
hydroelectric power and potential energy of water is utilized to generate
formula for total power that can be generated from water in hydroelectric power
plant due to its height is given
P=r h g
“p” is the power produced in "watt"
is the rate of flow of water which in cubic meter/second"J
height of water which is measured in "meter"
also head of water .
difference between source of water (from where water is taken) and the
water’s outflow (where the water is used to generate electricity, it is the
place near the turbines).
the gravity constant 9.81 m/second square
formula clearly shows that the total power that can be generated from the
hydroelectric power plants depends on two major factors
rate of water or volume of flow of water and
or head of water.
volume of water and
head of water more is the power produced in the hydroelectric power plant.
obtain the high head of water the reservoir of water should as high as possible
and power generation unit should be as low as possible.
maximum height of reservoir of water is fixed by natural factors like the
height of river bed, the amount of water and other environmental
location of the power generation unit can be adjusted as per the total
amount of power that is to be generated.
the power generation unit is constructed at levels lower than ground level
so as to get the maximum head of water.
total flow rate of water can be adjusted through the pen stock as per the
requirements. If more power is to be generated more water can be allowed
to flow through it.